I stared at my new teacher incredulously. It was my very first Spanish class, and she was speaking in Spanish, only in Spanish. After the first class I was pretty irritated, but after a week or so it started to make sense. If I was going to learn Spanish, then I needed to be in a Spanish-speaking environment.
The same principle applies to an English classroom. There is a common myth that you need to speak to your students in their own language to effectively teach English language concepts and vocabulary. But many ESL schools encourage their teachers to use English exclusively in the classroom. This post discusses the pros and cons of an English-only classroom, and finally some tips on how to create an English-only environment in your classroom, when you are teaching English abroad.
Bilingual Education vs English Immersion
The Pros of English Only Education
Imagine learning to ride a bike without ever taking off the training wheels. It feels comfortable and easy, but you will never really learn to ride a bike. The same is true of any foreign language. If you’re always relying on the crutch of your first language, you have no chance of becoming fluent.
On the most basic level, students need to interact with English to learn it. Constant exposure will help students to hone their listening skills and opportunities to speak will aid with fluency and pronunciation. The other clear benefit is that of setting an example. How can you expect the students to speak in English if you do not?
The Cons of Teaching English Only Education
Students may feel intimidated by English, associate it with endless rote learning, and see it as having limited use in their everyday lives. For that reason, you might run into a high level of resistance to using only English, at least initially. Most ESL students around the world are used to learning English from non-native speakers. Often, those teachers will use a mixture of English and their native language in the classroom. That is what many students will expect when they turn up for your first class. With some students overcoming their resistance will be relatively easy, but for others it might be a bit more of a challenge.
How to Teach ESL Without Speaking Your Students’ Native Language
The benefits of an English-only classroom are clear, and the resistance to it relatively easy to understand. How to make it a reality, however, might not be so obvious. In my opinion, there are two things you can do to achieve this.
Create a new set of expectations
Stick to your guns. Speak only English, and respond only to English. At first, the absence of their native language might irritate the students, but it will not take long for it to become the norm. Within a week or two you will have created a new set of expectations.
Make yourself more comprehensible
Teaching English to those for whom it is not the first language may appear to be a challenge at first. With a few techniques and some practice, however, it’s nowhere near as difficult as it might seem.
Communication is so much more than just words. Use non-verbal cues to your advantage. Hand gestures, actions, pictures, posters, drawings and text can all aid understanding of instructions and concepts. You can also change the pitch, tone and intonation of your voice. Select the vocabulary that you use carefully and simplify your sentences. In other words, you can use many of the same techniques that you use to communicate with a small child.
The Best Way to Teach, and Learn English
I learned a very important lesson from my first Spanish class: it’s possible to teach a foreign language without using the student’s native language. Not only is it possible, it’s the most effective and efficient way to teach, and learn a language.
Using your students’ native language as a crutch is what they will expect and what they will feel comfortable with. Although that is the path of least resistance, it will only hinder their progress in the long run. The initial effort often dissuades many teachers from trying the idea in the first place. All you need, however, is a little persistence.
Written by Robin Garnham
Robin Garnham originally planned to teach ESL for a year in Spain to improve his Spanish, but has now been teaching for five years. He currently teaches ESL in Oakland, California and is an Oxford Seminars instructor in San Jose, California.